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In the decade of the twentieth century 70 there are two major stylistic trends, such as Late modern and Postmodern architecture. These two styles, but parallel in time and fleeing the "Modern Movement", shall be designed so very different. The late modern style —also known as High-tech—, relied on technology and innovation, while the postmodern style introduced historical references. The main features of postmodern style are: the sharp divide of tall buildings on base, shaft and top, the introduction of classical orders and anthropomorphic configuration. «They all have in common denunciation of the principles advocated by rationalism architecture and the International Style, such as the functionalist principle, which states that the design is the result of the function, open plan and ornamental nudity.»

« To put it simply, a postmodern building challenges simultaneously at least two groups, architects and a committed minority who care about specific architectural problems and the public and site visitors interested in the problems of comfort, architecture and their traditional way of life.», Charles Jenks

The first major post-modern architects are Philip Johnson, Charles Moore, Aldo Rossi, Robert Venturi and Michael Graves. These architects were concerned with environmental issues, the recovery of historical forms and the pursuit of humor and surprise. "The use of historical elements is very free and eclectic and concern for the environment has to respect the forms and materials typical of the place."

The first major postmodern works are the Portland Public Service Building, Oregon (1980-1982), Michael Graves, the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans (1974-1980), Charles Moore, also AT&T Building in New York ( 1978-1984), designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee. One of the best examples of postmodern skyscrapers built in the city of New York is the Citigroup Center (1971-1977), also known as Citicorp Center, designed by Stubbins Associates in collaboration with Emery Roth & Sons.

« Postmodernism calls for an art that resonates with the life of the world. The postmodern architects defend the values ​​of ambiguity, irony, complexity and diversity of styles, and express their eclectic in the recovery of historical references.»

Very soon you will see the first postmodern works internationally prominent architects like Oscar Niemeyer or Santiago Calatrava, which will go a step further in this movement with a style markedly plastic and sculptural, rediscovering full creative freedom. In each of his works there is a clear anthropomorphic appearance, finding a metaphor based on the inspiration of nature or the human body in the predominantly white. Very good examples of this search are the MAC Museum of Contemporary Art in Niterói (1991-1996) by Oscar Niemeyer, and the MAM Milwaukee Art Museum (1994-2001) and the Tenerife Concert Hall (1991-2003) designed by Santiago Calatrava.

Other architectural styles such as Deconstructivism, whose exponents are Frank O. Gehry, Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid or Daniel Libeskind, the current High-tech, whose leading figures are Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, Richard Rodgers and Jean Nouvel, among others, the New Organic Architecture of Toyo Ito and Sustainable Architecture could Also included in this important category of the blog, as they all are encompassed within postmodernity, avoiding the so-called « modern movement » that drove the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius initiated in Weimar, Germany in 1919, continued by Hannes Meyer between 1928-1930, and finally concluded that Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1933, and as a private institute. The works are arranged chronologically.

The Tower
Dubai Creek Harbour, Dubai, UAE
Santiago Calatrava

Elbphilharmonie Hamburg
Hafencity, Hamburg, Germany
Herzog & de Meuron

The Kingdom Tower
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill

The Chicago Spire
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Santiago Calatrava

The Mirvish/Gehry Project
Toronto, Ontario, Canadá
Frank Gehry

One World Trade Center
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

China Comic & Animation Museum
Hangzhou, China

Doha Tower-Burj Qatar
Doha, Qatar
Ateliers Jean Nouvel

KK100 Development
Shenzhen, China
TFP Farrells

Riviera TwinStar Square
Pudong, Shanghai, China

Eight Spruce Street
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Gehry Partners LLP

Pasarela de la Arganzuela
Madrid, Spain
Dominique Perrault

Museo Soumaya
Mexico D.F.
LAR Fernando Romero

UK Pavilion
Shanghai Expo 2010, China
Heatherwick Studio

Torre Diagonal ZeroZero
Barcelona, Spain
EMBA Arquitectos

Guangzhou International Finance Centre
Guangzhou, China
Wilkinson Eyre Architects

Porta Fira Towers
Barcelona, Spain
Toyo Ito & Associates

Dubai, UAE United Arab Emirates

Aqua Tower
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Studio Gang Architects

One Bryan Park -
Bank of America Tower

Manhattan, New York, USA
Cook+Fox Architecs LLP

Suites Avenue Building
Barcelona, Spain
Toyo Ito & Associates

The Red Apple
Rotterdam, Holland
KCAP Architects & Planners

Cocoon Tower
Tokio, Japan
Tange Associates

Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai, China
Kohn Pedersen Fox & Associates

Reggio Emilia Bridges
Mancasale, Bolonia, Italia
Santiago Calatrava

Mallorca, Islas Baleares, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Third Millenium Ebro River Bridge
Zaragoza, Spain
Juan José Arenas de Pablo (Arenas y Asociados)

Rose Rayhaan by Rotana
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Khatib & Alami

The IAC Building
New York City, USA
Gehry Partners LLP

The New York Times Building
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Renzo Piano Building Workshop

Hotel Marqués de Riscal
El Ciego, Álava, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP

Valencia Opera House
City of Arts and Sciences
Valencia, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

HSB Turning Torso
Malmo, Sweden
Santiago Calatrava

MAGMA Arte & Congresos
Adeje, Tenerife, Spain
AMP Arquitectos

Moor House
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners

Spinnaker Tower
Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
HGP Architects

30 St. Mary Axe
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners

Jay Pritzker Pavilion
Millenium Park
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Gehry Partners LLP

Sundial Bridge
Redding, California, USA
Santiago Calatrava

Selfridges Departament Store
Birmingham, United Kingdom
Future Systems

Tenerife Concert Hall
Santa Cruz de Tenerife,
Canary Island, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Kingdom Centre
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ellerbe Becket & Omrania

City Hall
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners

Espirito Santo Plaza
Miami, Florida, USA
KPF Kohn Perdersen Fox

Puente de la Mujer
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Santiago Calatrava

Gateshead Millenium Bridge
Newscastle, England
Wilkinson Eyre Architecs

Sendai Mediatheque
Sendai, Japan
Toyo Ito & Associates

Milwaukee Art Museum
Wisconsin, USA
Santiago Calatrava

Winery Ysios
Laguardia, Álava, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Airport Sondica
Bilbao, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Burj Al Arab
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Tom Willis Wright (Atkins)

Campo Volantin Footbridge
Bilbao, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Bilbao, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP

The Dancing House
Prague, Czech Republic
Gehry Partners LLP

MAC-Museum of Contemporary Art
Niterói, Brasil
Oscar Niemeyer

Erasmus Bridge
Rotterdam, Holland
Ben van Berkel

Weisman Art Museum
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Frank O. Gehry

Montjuic Communications Tower
Barcelona, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Barcelona, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP

Puente del Alamillo
Sevilla, Andalucía, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Bank of China Tower
Hong Kong, China
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners

Barqueta Bridge
Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain
Juan José Arenas de Pablo

Bach de Roda Bridge
Barcelona, Spain
Santiago Calatrava

Miami Tower
Downtown Miami, Florida, USA
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners

Fountain Place
Dallas, Texas, USA
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners

The Atlantis Condominiums
Miami, Florida, USA

Citicorp Center
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Stubbins Associates;
Emery Roth & Sons

Pennzoil Place
Houston, Texas, USA
Philip Johnson/John Burgee

Sydney Opera House
Sydney, Australia
Jorn Utzon

References / Referencias

The Urban Towers Handbook
John Wiley&Sons, London, 2011
by Eric Firley and Julie Gimbal

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TURNING TORSO - Santiago Calatrava
Bellisco Ediciones, Madrid, 2008
by José Miguel Hernández Hernández
Español - English

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