POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE   (EN)




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In the decade of the twentieth century 70 there are two major stylistic trends, such as Late modern and Postmodern architecture. These two styles, but parallel in time and fleeing the "Modern Movement", shall be designed so very different. The late modern style —also known as High-tech—, relied on technology and innovation, while the postmodern style introduced historical references. The main features of postmodern style are: the sharp divide of tall buildings on base, shaft and top, the introduction of classical orders and anthropomorphic configuration. «They all have in common denunciation of the principles advocated by rationalism architecture and the International Style, such as the functionalist principle, which states that the design is the result of the function, open plan and ornamental nudity.»

« To put it simply, a postmodern building challenges simultaneously at least two groups, architects and a committed minority who care about specific architectural problems and the public and site visitors interested in the problems of comfort, architecture and their traditional way of life.», Charles Jenks

The first major post-modern architects are Philip Johnson, Charles Moore, Aldo Rossi, Robert Venturi and Michael Graves. These architects were concerned with environmental issues, the recovery of historical forms and the pursuit of humor and surprise. "The use of historical elements is very free and eclectic and concern for the environment has to respect the forms and materials typical of the place."


The first major postmodern works are the Portland Public Service Building, Oregon (1980-1982), Michael Graves, the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans (1974-1980), Charles Moore, also AT&T Building in New York ( 1978-1984), designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee. One of the best examples of postmodern skyscrapers built in the city of New York is the Citigroup Center (1971-1977), also known as Citicorp Center, designed by Stubbins Associates in collaboration with Emery Roth & Sons.



« Postmodernism calls for an art that resonates with the life of the world. The postmodern architects defend the values ​​of ambiguity, irony, complexity and diversity of styles, and express their eclectic in the recovery of historical references.»

Very soon you will see the first postmodern works internationally prominent architects like Oscar Niemeyer or Santiago Calatrava, which will go a step further in this movement with a style markedly plastic and sculptural, rediscovering full creative freedom. In each of his works there is a clear anthropomorphic appearance, finding a metaphor based on the inspiration of nature or the human body in the predominantly white. Very good examples of this search are the MAC Museum of Contemporary Art in Niterói (1991-1996) by Oscar Niemeyer, and the MAM Milwaukee Art Museum (1994-2001) and the Tenerife Concert Hall (1991-2003) designed by Santiago Calatrava.


Other architectural styles such as Deconstructivism, whose exponents are Frank O. Gehry, Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid or Daniel Libeskind, the current High-tech, whose leading figures are Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, Richard Rodgers and Jean Nouvel, among others, the New Organic Architecture of Toyo Ito and Sustainable Architecture could Also included in this important category of the blog, as they all are encompassed within postmodernity, avoiding the so-called « modern movement » that drove the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius initiated in Weimar, Germany in 1919, continued by Hannes Meyer between 1928-1930, and finally concluded that Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1933, and as a private institute. The works are arranged chronologically.










The Tower
Dubai Creek Harbour, Dubai, UAE
Santiago Calatrava






Elbphilharmonie Hamburg
Hafencity, Hamburg, Germany
Herzog & de Meuron







The Kingdom Tower
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill





The Chicago Spire
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Santiago Calatrava







The Mirvish/Gehry Project
Toronto, Ontario, Canadá
Frank Gehry






One World Trade Center
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP




China Comic & Animation Museum
Hangzhou, China
MVRDV







Doha Tower-Burj Qatar
Doha, Qatar
Ateliers Jean Nouvel







KK100 Development
Shenzhen, China
TFP Farrells







Riviera TwinStar Square
Pudong, Shanghai, China
Arquitectonica






Eight Spruce Street
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Gehry Partners LLP




Pasarela de la Arganzuela
Madrid, Spain
Dominique Perrault




Museo Soumaya
Mexico D.F.
LAR Fernando Romero





UK Pavilion
Shanghai Expo 2010, China
Heatherwick Studio






Torre Diagonal ZeroZero
Barcelona, Spain
EMBA Arquitectos






Guangzhou International Finance Centre
Guangzhou, China
Wilkinson Eyre Architects




Porta Fira Towers
Barcelona, Spain
Toyo Ito & Associates






O-14
Dubai, UAE United Arab Emirates
Reiser+Umemoto






Aqua Tower
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Studio Gang Architects




One Bryan Park -
Bank of America Tower

Manhattan, New York, USA
Cook+Fox Architecs LLP




Suites Avenue Building
Barcelona, Spain
Toyo Ito & Associates






The Red Apple
Rotterdam, Holland
KCAP Architects & Planners






Cocoon Tower
Tokio, Japan
Tange Associates




Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai, China
Kohn Pedersen Fox & Associates






Reggio Emilia Bridges
Mancasale, Bolonia, Italia
Santiago Calatrava





Bou
Mallorca, Islas Baleares, Spain
Santiago Calatrava




Third Millenium Ebro River Bridge
Zaragoza, Spain
Juan José Arenas de Pablo (Arenas y Asociados)






Rose Rayhaan by Rotana
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Khatib & Alami




The IAC Building
New York City, USA
Gehry Partners LLP






The New York Times Building
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Renzo Piano Building Workshop







Hotel Marqués de Riscal
El Ciego, Álava, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP









Valencia Opera House
City of Arts and Sciences
Valencia, Spain
Santiago Calatrava




HSB Turning Torso
Malmo, Sweden
Santiago Calatrava





MAGMA Arte & Congresos
Adeje, Tenerife, Spain
AMP Arquitectos






Moor House
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners




Spinnaker Tower
Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
HGP Architects






30 St. Mary Axe
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners



Jay Pritzker Pavilion
Millenium Park
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Gehry Partners LLP






Sundial Bridge
Redding, California, USA
Santiago Calatrava




Selfridges Departament Store
Birmingham, United Kingdom
Future Systems






Tenerife Concert Hall
Santa Cruz de Tenerife,
Canary Island, Spain
Santiago Calatrava




Kingdom Centre
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ellerbe Becket & Omrania




City Hall
London, United Kingdom
Foster + Partners





Espirito Santo Plaza
Miami, Florida, USA
KPF Kohn Perdersen Fox




Puente de la Mujer
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Santiago Calatrava




Gateshead Millenium Bridge
Newscastle, England
Wilkinson Eyre Architecs





Sendai Mediatheque
Sendai, Japan
Toyo Ito & Associates





Milwaukee Art Museum
Wisconsin, USA
Santiago Calatrava



Winery Ysios
Laguardia, Álava, Spain
Santiago Calatrava



Airport Sondica
Bilbao, Spain
Santiago Calatrava




Burj Al Arab
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Tom Willis Wright (Atkins)





Campo Volantin Footbridge
Bilbao, Spain
Santiago Calatrava






Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Bilbao, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP




The Dancing House
Prague, Czech Republic
Gehry Partners LLP





MAC-Museum of Contemporary Art
Niterói, Brasil
Oscar Niemeyer





Erasmus Bridge
Rotterdam, Holland
Ben van Berkel




Weisman Art Museum
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Frank O. Gehry







Montjuic Communications Tower
Barcelona, Spain
Santiago Calatrava





Fish
Barcelona, Spain
Gehry Partners LLP






Puente del Alamillo
Sevilla, Andalucía, Spain
Santiago Calatrava







Bank of China Tower
Hong Kong, China
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners




Barqueta Bridge
Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain
Juan José Arenas de Pablo






Bach de Roda Bridge
Barcelona, Spain
Santiago Calatrava







Miami Tower
Downtown Miami, Florida, USA
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners






Fountain Place
Dallas, Texas, USA
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners





The Atlantis Condominiums
Miami, Florida, USA
Arquitectonica






Citicorp Center
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Stubbins Associates;
Emery Roth & Sons







Pennzoil Place
Houston, Texas, USA
Philip Johnson/John Burgee




Sydney Opera House
Sydney, Australia
Jorn Utzon







References / Referencias


The Urban Towers Handbook
John Wiley&Sons, London, 2011
by Eric Firley and Julie Gimbal
English

+info   Buy


TURNING TORSO - Santiago Calatrava
Bellisco Ediciones, Madrid, 2008
by José Miguel Hernández Hernández
Español - English

+info   Buy




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