THE 100 WORLD'S TALLEST SKYSCRAPERS



ESPAÑOL


Comparative chart shows the evolution of skyscrapers from the Home Insurance Building in Chicago in 1885 (the first tall building or first skyscraper in history), until completion of the Burj Khalifa of Dubai in 2010.

With the arrival of the first safe elevator to transport people, who invented Elisha Graves Otis (1811-1861) and was installed in 1857 in the EV Stores Haughwout & Company in New York, the West has been an evolving area in terms of architectural culture in search of heaven is concerned, holds the record high in the construction of skyscrapers along almost the entire twentieth century, primarily in the cities of Chicago and New York. After the sad fire in 1871 and that devastated the city of Chicago because most of the houses had been built of wood, motivated the architects and engineers of the first Chicago school of thought in a new form of urban planning construction of the first tall buildings. The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, demolished in 1931 and was built in 1885 with 10 storeys high, —designed by architect "Father of the Skyscraper" William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907)— became the first skyscraper history.

A few years later, construction of the Flatiron Building in New York in 1902 triangle that evokes the stately figure of a classical Greek column divided into three parts, the architect, member of the Chicago school of Daniel Burnham, led to the arrival of a new typology of buildings on the island of Manhattan, the Tall Building ( Skyscraper ). In a small area perimeter, many plants were repeated in height. The great invention of the elevator, the use of a construction system using an iron frame and then primarily steel, thanks to its ductility, helped to adopt this type of high-rise buildings. Overcrowding, the rapid growth of cities in the U.S., the scarcity and high land values, also the high demand for houses, motivated the architects and engineers think of a new form of urban planning, tall buildings. In 1820, New York and was the largest city in the United States.

Skyscrapers emblematic of the Big Apple as the Gothic Revival style Woolworth Building Cass Gilbert design in 1913, the Bank of Manhattan, also known as 40 Wall Street due to the direction where it is located in 1930, and also perhaps the most important so posed to the city of New York and the country, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building Art Deco style opened in 1930 and 1931, respectively, two separate records kept high in the world. It should be noted that the height record which won the Empire State Building in New York in 1931 with its 381 meters high architectural, was retained for no less than 42 years, until 1973, which opened in the famous old Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in the same city, sadly destroyed on September 11th 2001.

Soon, a year later in 1974, the prestigious architectural firm Skidmore, Owings, Merrill, SOM, true specialists in the design and construction of many tall buildings and skyscrapers around the world as the Lever House in New York John Hancock Center in Chicago and Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai, inaugurated the Sears Tower with the characteristic "Megamodule" anodized aluminum black. The work, designed by architect Bruce Graham and structural engineer prestigious Fazlur Khan, could snatch the title of world's tallest skyscraper on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center with its architectural height 442 meters. The huge building, considered one of the finest examples of International Style, it has become without doubt one of the best skyscraper in the world.

In 1998, on the other end of the world, Asia, specifically Malaysia, inaugurated the famous Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur in a large mass rally. The beautiful towers, designed by architect Cesar Pelli origin, became, with its 452 meters high architectural-the highest in the world to date. Orient managed to snatch the title to the West after so many decades, providing plenty of modernity and progress into the future, going to dominate the real picture and the media. The reality is that from time immemorial as the construction of the Tower of Babel, man has always wanted to build the structure or the tallest skyscraper in the world. Already in this century, the oriental revivalism Taipei 101 in Taiwan Island with its 508 meters earthquake proof, or the Burj Khalifa in Dubai with its 828 meters, built in the UAE, have also achieved make history and become the center of attention, maintaining two separate Orient in world records.

Currently under construction which will become the tallest skyscraper in the world in 2016 overcoming the barrier of a mile, the Kingdom Tower (Tower of the Kingdom). The huge building design firm Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture and snatch the title to the Burj Dubai is being built in the city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. The height, which is kept secret to avoid being overcome as occurred during the construction of Burj Dubai, will surpass the barrier of 1,000 meters. What will be the next challenge for the man in search of heaven? The reality is that building the tallest skyscraper in the world as a symbol of wealth and power is not the most important thing right now. Climate Change and the Global Crisis have motivated the leading architects and engineers have had to go adapting to changing times, evolving and thinking about a new green architecture, ecological and sustainable to meet current needs using all natural resources and thereby respecting the environment around us.

The CTBUH Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, based in Chicago is currently in charge of studying the tall buildings around the world from 10 or 12 plants. However, this important organization offers annual awards in various categories such as Best Building of the Americas, Best Building in Asia and Australasia, Europe's Best Building, Best Building in the Middle East & Africa, and also the most innovative building year. The works of this important course directory sorted by height...










The Kingdom Tower
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill





Burj Khalifa (Burj Dubai)
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, SOM





The Chicago Spire
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Santiago Calatrava






One World Trade Center
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP









Taipei 101
Taipei, Taiwan
C. Y. Lee & Partners




Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai, China
Kohn Pedersen Fox & Associates




Petronas Towers
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cesar Pelli & Associates






Guangzhou International Finance Center
Guangzhou, China
Wilkinson Eyre Architects






Willis Tower (Sears Tower)
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, SOM






Trump Chicago Tower
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, SOM




The World Trade Center
Manhattan, New York, USA
Minoru Yamasaki & Associates






Al Hamra Tower
Kuwait, KUW
SOM






Empire State Building
Manhattan, New York
Shreve, Lamb & Harmon Associates







Bank of China Tower
Hong Kong, China
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners




One Bryan Park -
Bank of America Tower

Manhattan, New York, USA
Cook+Fox Architecs LLP




Tuntex Sky Tower
Kaohsiung, Taiwan
C. Y Lee & Partners




John Hancock Center
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, SOM






Rose Rayhaan by Rotana
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Khatib & Alami




Burj Al Arab
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Tom Willis Wright (Atkins)






Chrysler Building
Manhattan, New York, USA
William van Alen






The New York Times Building
Manhattan, New York City, USA
Renzo Piano Building Workshop






The Shard - London Bridge Quarter
London, United Kingdom
Renzo Piano Building Workshop




Kingdom Centre
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ellerbe Becket & Omrania






Capital City Towers
Moscow, Rusia
NBBJ & Arup






American International Building
Manhattan, New York City
Clinton and Russell; Holton & George








LIST OF 100 WORLD'S TALLEST SKYSCRAPERS

# Building, City, Height in meters, Height in feet, Floors, Year

  1. Burj Khalifa (Burj Dubai), Dubai, 828 m, 2,717 ft, 163, 2010
  2. Taipei 101, Taipei, 508 m, 1,667 ft, 101, 2004
  3. Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, 492 m, 1,614 ft, 101, 2008
  4. International Commerce Center, Hong Kong, 484 m, 1,588 ft, 108, 2010
  5. Petronas Tower 1, Kuala Lumpur, 452 m, 1,483 ft, 88, 1998
  5. Petronas Tower 2, Kuala Lumpur, 452 m, 1,483 ft, 88, 1998
  7. Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, 450 m, 1,476 ft, 66, 2010
  8. Willis Tower (Sears Tower), Chicago, 442 m, 1,451 ft, 108, 1974
  9. KK100 Development, 442 m, 1,449 ft, 100, 2011
10. Guangzhou International Finance Center, 439 m, 1,439 ft, 103, 2010
11. Trump Chicago Tower, Chicago, 415 m, 1,362 ft, 96, 2009
12. Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai, 421 m, 1,380 ft, 88, 1999
13. Princess Tower, Dubai, 413 m, 1356 ft, 101, 2012
14. Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait City, 413 m, 1354 ft, 80, 2011
15. Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong, 415 m, 1,362 ft, 88, 2003
16. 23 Marina, Dubai, 393 m, 1289 ft, 90, 2012
17. CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, 391 m, 1,280 ft, 80, 1996
18. Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, 384 m, 1,260 ft, 69, 1996
19. Empire State Building, New York City, 381 m, 1,250 ft, 102, 1931
20. Elite Residence, Dubai, 380 m, 1248 ft, 87, 2012
21. Central Plaza, Hong Kong, 374 m, 1,227 ft, 78, 1992
22. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, 367 m, 1,205 ft, 70, 1990
23. Bank of America Tower, New York City, 366 m, 1,200 ft, 58, 2009
24. Almas Tower, Dubai, 360 m, 1,181 ft, 68, 2008
24. The Pinnacle, Guangzhou, 360, 1181 ft, 60, 2012
26. JW Marriott Marquis Hotel Tower 1, Dubai, 355 m, 1166 ft, 82, 2012
27. Emirates Tower One, Dubai, 355 m, 1,163 ft, 54, 2000
28. Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung 348 m, 1,140 ft, 85, 1997
29. Aon Center, Chicago, 346 m, 1,136 ft, 83, 1973
30. The Center, Hong Kong, 346 m, 1,135 ft, 73, 1998
31. John Hancock Center, Chicago, 344 m, 1,128 ft, 100, 1969
32. Tianjin World Financial Center, Tianjin, 337 m, 1,105, 75, 2011
33. The Torch, Dubai, 337, 1105 ft, 79, 2011
34. Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower, Hanoi, 336 m, 1102 ft, 70, 2012
35. Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, 333 m, 1,094 ft, 60, 2006
36. Rose Rotana Tower, Dubai, 333 m, 1,093 ft, 72, 2007
37. Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, 331 m, 1,086 ft, 68, 2008
38. China World Tower, Beijing, 330 m, 1,083 ft, 74, 2010
39. Longxi International Hotel, Jiangyin, 328 ft, 1076 ft, 74, 2011
40. The Index, Dubai, 326 m, 1,070 ft, 80, 2010
41. Q1 Tower, Gold Coast City (AU), 323 m, 1,058 ft, 78, 2005
42. Wenzhou Trade Center, Wenzhou, 322 m, 1,056 ft, 68, 2011
43. Burj Al Arab, Dubai, 321 m, 1,053 ft, 60, 1999
44. Nina Tower, Hong Kong, 320 m, 1,051 ft, 80, 2006
45. Chrysler Building, New York City, 319 m, 1,046 ft, 77, 1930
46. New York Times Tower, New York City, 319 m, 1,046 ft, 52, 2007
47. HHHR Tower, Dubai, 318 m, 1,042 ft, 72, 2010
48. Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, 317 m, 1,040 ft, 55, 1993
49. US Bank Tower, Los Angeles, 310 m, 1,018 ft, 73, 1990
50. Ocean Heights, Dubai, 310 m, 1,017 ft, 83, 2010
50. Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, 310 m, 1,017 ft, 55, 2001
52. Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, 309 m, 1015, 71, 2012
53. Emirates Tower Two, Dubai, 309 m, 1014 ft, 56, 2000
54. Franklin Center-Noth Tower, Chicago, 307 m, 1007 ft, 60, 1989
55. JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, 305 m, 1,002 ft, 75, 1982
56. Etihad Towers T2, Abu Dhabi, 305 m, 1002, 80, 2011
57. Northeast Asia Trade Tower, Incheon, 305 m, 1,001 ft, 68, 2011
58. Baiyoke Tower II, Bangkok, 304 m, 997 ft, 85, 1997
59. Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago, 303 m, 995 ft, 64, 1990
60. Leatop Plaza, Guangzhou, 303 m, 993 ft, 64, 2012
61. Wells Fargo Plaza, Houston, 302 m, 992 ft, 71, 1983
62. Kingdom Centre, Riyadh, 302 m, 992 ft, 41, 2002
63. The Address, Dubai, 302 m, 991 ft, 63, 2008
64. Capital City Moscow Tower, Moscow, 302 m, 990 ft, 76, 2010
65. Doosan Haeundae We've the Zenith Tower A, Busan, 300 m, 984 ft, 80, 2011
65. Arraya Center Office Tower, Kuwait City, 300 m, 984 ft, 60, 2009
65. Aspire Tower, Doha, 300 m, 984 ft, 36, 2007
68. First Bank Tower, Toronto, 298 m, 978 ft, 72, 1975
68. One Island East, Hong Kong, 298 m, 978 ft, 68, 2008
70. Eureka Tower, Melbourne, 297 m, 975 ft, 91, 2006
71. Comcast Center, Philadelphia, 297 m 974 ft 57 2008
72. Landmark Tower, Yokohama, 296 m, 972 ft, 73, 1993
72. Emirates Crown, Dubai, 296 m, 971 ft, 63, 2008
73. Khalid Al Attar Tower 2, Dubai, 294 m, 965 ft, 66, 2011
74. 311 South Wacker, Chicago, 293 m, 961 ft, 65, 1990
75. Sky Tower, Abu Dhabi, 292 m, 959 ft, 74, 2010
76. Haeundae I Park Marina Tower 2, Busan (KR), 292 m, 958 ft, 72, 2011
77. SEG Plaza, Shenzhen, 292 m, 957 ft, 71, 2000
78. 70 Pine Street, New York City, 290 m, 952 ft, 67, 1932
79. Key Tower, Cleveland, 289 m, 947 ft, 57, 1991
81. Plaza 66, Shanghai, 288 m, 945 ft, 66, 2001
82. One Liberty Place, Philadelphia, 288 m, 945 ft, 61, 1987
83. Yingli International Finance Centre, Chongqing, 288 m, 945 ft, 58, 2012
84. Millennium Tower, Dubai, 285 m, 935 ft, 59, 2006
85. Sulafa Tower, Dubai, 285 m, 935 ft, 75, 2010
86. Tomorrow Square, Shanghai, 285 m, 934 ft, 60, 2003
87. Columbia Center, Seattle, 284 m, 933 ft, 76, 1984
88. Trump Ocean Club I. Hotel & Tower , Panama City, 284 m, 932 ft, 70, 2011
88. Three International Finance Center, Seoul, 284 m, 932 ft, 55, 2012
90. Chongqing World Trade Center, Chongqing, 283 m, 929 ft, 60, 2005
91. Cheung Kong Centre, Hong Kong, 283 m, 928 ft, 63, 1999
92. The Trump Building, New York City, 283 m, 927 ft, 71, 1930
93. Suzhou RunHua Global Building A, Suzhou, 282 m, 925 ft, 49, 2010
94. Doosan Haeundae We've the Zenith Tower B, Busan, 282 m, 924 ft, 75, 2011
95. Bank of America Plaza, Dallas, 281 m, 921 ft, 72, 1985
96. Torre Vitri, Panama City (PA), 281 m, 921 ft, 75, 2012
97. Marina Pinnacle, Dubai, 280 *m, 919 ft, 73, 2011
97. United Overseas Bank Plaza One, Singapore (SG), 280 m, 919 ft, 66, 1992
97. Excellence Century Plaza Tower 1, Shenzhen, 280 m, 919 ft, 60, 2010
97. Shimao Didang New City Main Tower, Shaoxing (CN), 280, 919 ft, 56, 2012





References / Referencias


The Urban Towers Handbook
John Wiley&Sons, London, 2011
by Eric Firley and Julie Gimbal
English

+info   Buy


TURNING TORSO - Santiago Calatrava
Bellisco Ediciones, Madrid, 2008
by José Miguel Hernández Hernández
Español - English

+info   Buy




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